Complete Blood Count (CBC)

Assalamualaikum wbt

CBC Why is it important?
1.Because it is the easiest, cheapest, and fastest way of evaluating the general condition of our body.
2.It helps to suspect any related disorders and if needed, to undergo further specific test.

      1)    WBC (white blood cell) leukocyte count
           1. Increase: leucocytosis, agranulocytosis (neu), absolutely lymphocytosis (lym)
    Causes: infection, inflammation, certain type leukemia
2. Decrease: leucopenia, neutropenia (neu), lymphopenia (lym)
     Causes: effect of certain drugs, bone marrow diseases, enlarged spleen

2) RBC (red blood cell) erythrocyte count
                 1.    Increase: erythrocytosis (reactive/tumor)
             Causes: reactive in case of bleeding, hypoxia (COPD), hyperactivity of bone marrow, post-phlebotomy, altitude sickness, dehydration, tumor:myeloproliferative disorder, renal cell carcinoma
                  2.    Decrease: anemia
                 Causes: iron deficiency, vitamin B12 deficiency, chronic disease: cancer, HIV/AIDS, chronic inflammatory disease: Crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, kidney failure, bone marrow disability (aplastic anemia) due to infection, drugs and autoimmune diseases, leukaemia, myelodysplasia or myelofibrosis, multiple myeloma, lymphoma, increase of blood hemolysis, congenital disease: sickle- cell anemia, thalassemia  
      3)    Hematocrit (Hct)
      it shows how much of the total blood volume in the body consists of red blood cells.
            Hemoglobin (Hgb)
            Function: transport oxygen and carbon dioxide from and to the lungs
        1.    Increase: lung diseases, living at high altitude, excessive production by bone marrow
        2.    Decrease: anemia- nutritional deficiency(iron, vitamin B), blood loss, increase cellular destruction/lysis, failure of blood production in bone marrow

     4)    Mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
     it shows the average volume of red blood cells. It helps to diagnose cause of anemia.
    1.    Increase: anemia associated with deficiency of vitamin B12 or folate, ineffective production in bone marrow
    2.    Decrease: iron deficiency anemia

     5)    Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)
     it shows the average amount of hemoglobin in the typical red blood cell.

     6)    Red cell distribution width (RDW or RCDW)
     get an idea of the shape and size of red blood cells. In this case, “width” refers to a measurement of distribution, not the size of the cells. Liver disease, anemia, nutritional deficiencies, and a number of health conditions could cause high or low RDW results.

     7)    Platelet count
     function: blood clotting, prevent bleeding
     1.    Increase: bleeding, cigarette smoking, excessive production by bone marrow
      2.    Decrease: premature destruction state (immune thrombocytopenia), acute blood loss,drug effects(heparin), infection with sepsis, hypersplenomegaly, bone marrow failure (leukemia , myelofibrosis)

     8)    Mean Platelet Volume (MPV)
     shows average size of platelets.
     1.    Increase: larger platelet - heart attack or stroke.
     2.    Decrease: smaller platelets - bleeding disorder.


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